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Water Science & Technology—WST Vol 61 No 5 pp 1307–1315 © IWA Publishing 2010 doi:10.2166/wst.2010.026

Identification, assessment, and control of hazards in water supply: experiences from Water Safety Plan implementations in Germany

H.-J. Mälzer, N. Staben, A. Hein and W. Merkel

IWW Water Centre, Moritzstraße 26, 45476, Muelheim an der Ruhr, Germany E-mail: a.maelzer@iww-online.de; n.staben@iww-online.de; a.hein@iww-online.de; w.merkel@iww-online.de


According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for Water Safety Plans (WSP), a Technical Risk Management was developed, which considers standard demands in drinking water treatment in Germany. It was already implemented at several drinking water treatment plants of different size and treatment processes in Germany. Hazards affecting water quality, continuity, and the reliability of supply from catchment to treatment and distribution could be identified by a systematic approach, and suitable control measures were defined. Experiences are presented by detailed examples covering methods, practical consequences, and further outcomes. The method and the benefits for the water suppliers are discussed and an outlook on the future role of WSPs in German water supply is given.

Keywords: hazard control; hazard identification; risk assessment; system assessment; technical risk management, water safety plan

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