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Water Science & Technology Vol 51 No 10 pp 29–38 © IWA Publishing 2005

Small scale sanitation technologies

W. Green* and G. Ho**

*Honours candidate, Murdoch University, West Australia, Environmental Technology Centre (ETC), Australia, (E-mail: wendy.green@westnet.com.au)
**Professor in Environmental Science, Murdoch University, WA, 6150, and Chair of ETC, Australia, (E-mail: g.ho@murdoch.edu.au)

Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. Keywords Household; onsite; reuse; sanitation; treatment; wastewater

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