IWA Publishing
 IWA Publishing Journals   Subscriptions   Authors   Users   Librarians   FAQs 

Water Science & Technology Vol 44 No 6 pp 81–88 © IWA Publishing 2001

On-site wastewater technologies in Australia

G. Ho*, S. Dallas**, M. Anda*** and K. Mathew****

*Remote Area Developments Group, Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia. (E-mail: ho@central.murdoch.edu.au)
**Remote Area Developments Group, Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia.
***Remote Area Developments Group, Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia.
****Remote Area Developments Group, Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia.


ABSTRACT
Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique "wet composting" system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

Full article (PDF Format)


eProduct: Buy this article for £24.00 (IWA MEMBER PRICE: £18.00)
All prices include VAT. For customers where VAT should not be applied, the VAT amount will be removed upon payment