Water Science and Technology Vol 39 No 5 pp 195202 © IWA Publishing 1999
Primary effluent filtration in small-scale installations
J. C. L. van Buuren, A. Abusam, G. Zeeman and G. Lettinga
Wageningen Agricultural University, Department of Agro-Environmental and Systems Technology, P.O. Box 8129 6700 EV Wageningen The Netherlands
This paper reviews recent technological developments in the filtration of primary effluent. Various studies show that single stage intermittent sand filters attain removal efficiencies of 90% COD, 95% BOD5, 30% TN, 40% TP and 99-99.9% FC at maximum BOD5 loads of around 10 g.m-2.d-1 and hydraulic loads of 5-10 cm.d-1. The permissible organic load can be enhanced by measures such as improved aeration and the use of multilayer filters. Nitrogen removal can be enhanced to 70% by adding a C-source to the filter material or by using two-stage post- and pre-denitrification systems. High organic loading rates (up to around 100 g BOD5.m-2.d-1) are possible with aerated adsorbent foam as a medium.
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