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Water Science & Technology Vol 24 No 5 pp 163–173 © IWA Publishing 1991

Appropriate Technology Hygiene Facility for Small Communities

Martin Anda, Kuruvilla Mathew and Goen Ho

Remote Area Developments Group, Institute for Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, West Australia, 6150, Australia


Small communities will often need alternative systems of water supply, sanitation, washing and wastewater disposal facilities. Numerous agencies supply various models of ablutions facilities. The Remote Area Hygiene Facility comprises laundry, shower, toilet, wastewater disposal trench, solar water heater, chipheater, hand-operated washing machine and washing line. The toilet is a water–seal, low water demand, pit type. A plastic, solar water heater has been developed to overcome the problems experienced by commercial, metallic units such as blockages, breakages and ruptures due to freezing. The plastic design is more durable in the chosen environment and quite easy to assemble. Wastewater disposal is by evapotranspiration which is shown to be more effective than leach drains in tight, clay soils and promotes the growth of trees and shrubs. The Remote Area Developments Group proposes the installation of these units as community–based training projects to provide general construction skills, environmental hygiene education and a commitment to maintenance.

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