Water Science & Technology Vol 21 No 2 pp 7781 © IWA Publishing 1989
Dispersion of Sewage Wastes in Nearshore Coastal Waters: Applicability of Water Quality Criteria
D. A. Lord*, W. O. K. Grabow** and M. J. Roberts*
*Department of Oceanography, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box 1600, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa
**Department of Virology, University of Pretoria, P.O. Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Deepwater outfalls can be satisfactorily designed to ensure rapid dilution of sewage wastes, and allow for conventional water quality criteria which prescribe low bacterial levels in areas used for recreational purposes and shellfish harvesting, to be achieved. However, surface shoreline discharges of similar wastes dissipate far less readily, and normally result in shoreline bacterial levels far in excess of desirable criteria. The absolute assessment of water quality in suspect areas should ideally also include viral counts as well as epidemiological information on infections of persons exposed to contaminated seawater or seafood.
Keywords: Sewage effluents; shoreline discharges; plume dispersion; indicator bacteria; viruses; health effects; water quality criteria.
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