IWA Publishing
 IWA Publishing Journals   Subscriptions   Authors   Users   Librarians   FAQs 

Water Science & Technology: Water Supply Vol 7 No 5-6 pp 9–17 © IWA Publishing 2007 doi:10.2166/ws.2007.142

Ceramic silver-impregnated pot filters for household drinking water treatment in developing countries: material characterization and performance study

D. van Halem*, S.G.J. Heijman* , A.I.A. Soppe** , J.C. van Dijk* and G.L. Amy*** 

*Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN , Delft, The Netherlands (E-mail: d.vanhalem@tudelft.nl; j.c.vandijk@tudelft.nl)
**Delft University of Technology & Kiwa Water Research, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE , Nieuwegein, The Netherlands (E-mail: s.g.j.heijman@tudelft.nl)
***Aqua for All Foundation, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE , Nieuwegein, The Netherlands (E-mail: gsoppe@planet.nl)
****UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX , Delft, The Netherlands (E-mail: g.amy@unesco-ihe.org)


ABSTRACT

The ceramic silver-impregnated pot filter (CSF) is a low-cost drinking water treatment system currently produced in many factories worldwide. The objective of this study is to gather performance data to provide a scientific basis for organisations to safely scale-up and implement the CSF technology. Filters from three production locations are included in this study: Cambodia, Ghana and Nicaragua. The microstructure of the filter material was studied using mercury intrusion porosimetry and bubble-point tests. Effective pores were measured with a mean of 40 mm, which is larger than many pathogenic microorganisms. The removal efficiency of these microorganisms was measured by using indicator organisms; total coliforms naturally present in canal water, sulphite reducing Clostridium spores, E.coli K12 and MS2 bacteriophages. The removal of these organisms was monitored during a long-term study of several months in the laboratory. Ceramic silver impregnated pot filters successfully removed total coliforms and sulphite reducing Clostridium spores. High concentrations of Escherichia coli K12 were also removed, with log(10) reduction values consistently higher than 2. MS2 bacteriophages were only partially removed from the water, with significantly better results for filters without an impregnation of colloidal silver. During this study the main deficiency of the filter system proved to be the low water production; after 12 weeks of use all filter discharges were below 0.5 Lh-1, which is insufficient to provide drinking water for a family

Keywords: Ceramic; developing countries; drinking water; filtration; pot; silver


Full article (PDF Format)


eProduct: Buy this article for £24.00 (IWA MEMBER PRICE: £18.00)
All prices include VAT. For customers where VAT should not be applied, the VAT amount will be removed upon payment