IWA Publishing
 IWA Publishing Journals   Subscriptions   Authors   Users   Librarians   FAQs 

Journal of Water and Health Vol 06 No 2 pp 255–262 © IWA Publishing 2008 doi:10.2166/wh.2008.029

Survival of enteric microorganisms on grass surfaces irrigated with treated effluent

J. P. S. Sidhu, J. Hanna and S. G. Toze




ABSTRACT

Treated effluent can be reused for the irrigation of parks and sports grounds but there is an associated potential public health risks from microbial pathogens present on the grass surface, particularly when used for contact sports. The main aim of this study was to investigate the survival of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms on the grass surface of a sports ground irrigated with treated effluent under differing climatic conditions. Results showed that Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus decayed faster under direct sunlight than MS2 with one log10 reduction (T90) varying from 3 to 11 hours. Rapid decay (T90 3 to 4 hours) of bacterial pathogens occurred in both sunlight and shade during the summer. In contrast, T90 times for the bacteria during the winter varied from 6 to 11 hours in direct sunlight and from 23 to 38 hours in shade. No significant seasonal variation was observed in the inactivation of the bacteriophage MS2. Enteric viruses are expected to show inactivation rates similar to MS2. The results show that rapid inactivation of enteric bacteria can be expected on grass surface irrigated with treated effluent at higher ambient temperatures, in direct sunlight and low moisture content.

Keywords: bacteriophage; pathogens; pathogen survival; sports grounds; treated effluent; water reuse


Full article (PDF Format)


eProduct: Buy this article for £24.00 (IWA MEMBER PRICE: £18.00)
All prices include VAT. For customers where VAT should not be applied, the VAT amount will be removed upon payment